Deforestation has always been an issue of ecological concern. In fact, many countries have started different afforestation plans: Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) in China, National Afforestation and Reforestation Plan (PNFR) in Ecuador, and National Afforestation Programme (NAP) in India. But are they really useful?
The forestation process should solve ecological problems, putting an end to habitat damages, desertification, loss of biodiversity, increase of greenhouse effect and so on. However, it has resulted in a diminution of water supply in several regions with different climate conditions: evapotranspiration, a key process in the water cycle, is altered: the “green flux”, that is the part of precipitation destined to “plant use”, increases to the detriment of “blue flux”, the part of water meant for human use as it flows in rivers, lakes and in the underground.
Forestation can be effective only on this basis:
- On a large scale: extended portions of forests can increase the possibility of precipitation in a far location. So, forestion can accelerate the water cycle.
- With suitable tree species: as the times passes, the water cycle improves.
- In tropical-climate regions: the frequency of precipitation in these locations makes the water supply issue less problematic.